Rotary  kiln  with  internal  device  for  uniformly  convenience  food
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Protect the surface of the concrete floor
To protect the concrete floor, which is operated in the normal mode, or is subject to wear in areas with high traffic, there are several ways to protect the surface.
   Comparable ways: their cost, appearance and ability to perform the task to protect.
   In this article, we consider three ways to finish and protect the floor. Each of them has its advantages and disadvantages.
   Thin fil...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 3
When used as part of exhaustion moderator comes coagulation and solidification of liquid glass. However, due to the presence in the composition of Portland cement with a finishing time is an increase strength of the coating due to hydration of cement minerals. Thus from colloids formed during the coagulation liquid glass are actively assigned to the water for hydration of cement, a porous media formed tumors filled Portland cement, which leads to...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 2
Studies in Berlin Institute Federal institute for Materials Research and Testing, show that the average density of 1730 kg/m3 brick large proportion of pores having a size in excess of 1 micron is more than 90% [3] and they are responsible for the increased migration of fluids through brickwork.
   Most fully meet these requirements structure obtained by coagulation and water-soluble potassium silicate forming silica with a high sp...

Modernization and repair of self-propelled machines. (3)
Hardening electrolysis BORATING hinge pins and bushings mates working equipment hydraulic excavators EO-4121 (EA-4321) gives an increase in wear resistance 4-6 times compared to the bulk quenching details.
   Taking into account the high wear resistance of brazed blades, hardened sintered alloys (see Table 1), are recommended for carbide knives dumps graders DZ-122 and RS-98, combined machine E-405 based on KAMAZ, for front dumps a t...

Specialized exhibition Architecture. Construction (END)
Mari-lime brick and gas silicate blocks
   JSC "MZSK" produces silicate brick and a half, color (white, yellow, black, red, blue, green, brown).
   For the production of silica brick used quartz sand from quarries near the plant. Limestone enters the factory with Dobryatinskogo deposit Vladimir region. Silicate brick (Table 1) is used for masonry exterior and interior walls of buildings and structures, as well as ...

Geophysical processes primers and security. Part 5
In the center of Moscow can distinguish vertical structure comprising a crashing into the Earth`s crust magma elongated cylinder (Fig. 2) [5]. In the center section marked lack of extensive vertical zone converted waves ("blind spot"), going from the depths of 70-80 km to 7.5 km. Such "blind spots" are characteristic of the earth`s crust with the introduction of monolithic dense mantle rocks such as gabbro, diabase, etc. In such a zone Tashkent e...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 1
The quality of the decoration of buildings for new construction and reconstruction depend not only on their aesthetic, but also the operational parameters, as good-quality finish - a guarantee of durable service basic designs, long maintenance-free operation, the costs for maintenance and care. Traditional binders used for the production of finishing compositions, liquid glass is widely used, but it has some drawback: coatings based on it gaining...

On possible amendments to the equation Griffiths
Griffith presented a picture of destruction allowed to formulate the problem of determining conditions of the beginning of crack propagation and find its general solution.
   As seen from the above schemes, in the process of crack propagation material directly adjacent to it "coasts" unloaded relaxes. This means that the stress and strain it decreases, and the elastic energy stored earlier in this area of ​​the body is re...

Construction skyscrapers - the requirements of modernity. Part 4
The program is a high-rise building in Moscow
   The project is now a high-rise building in Moscow is implemented in two main areas: the construction of business center "Moscow City" and implementation of the program of the Government of Moscow "New Ring of Russia."
   1. Moscow international business center "Moscow - City"
   The project includes the construction of buildings on the territory of abou...

Degree project - beginning of the road. (3)
Given the great diversity of subject matter and content of diplomas in various specialties, the jury is faced with great difficulties in determining the winners - "Who better violinist or a dancer?". Nevertheless, often based on emotional perception and can estimate the relevance and novelty, and the author`s contribution to the thesis project or job. Absolute winners in recent years have been graduates of Rostov CSO GASU St. Petersburg, Nizhny N...


 Information for builders



 Rotary  kiln  with  internal  device  for  uniformly  convenience  food

Currently, for the production of expanded clay gravel furnaces use two varieties - single drum and double drum.
   Double Drum ovens consist of separate reels, of which the smaller diameter is used for drying and heating of pellets of large diameter and short - for their firing. Preparation drum and thermal baking drum installed on the same axis (the first to the second part more) or separated Overflow chamber. Each of the drums is driven independently. Other nodes of the equipment set double-drum furnaces are similar to similar devices for single-drum furnaces.
   A significant drawback of these furnaces is the structure of their mechanisms of power outside the furnace and is not responsive to such indicators semifinished as humidity granulometric composition, density etc., which affect the operation of the furnace and as a finished product. Considered below the three-drum furnace design with an internal device for uniform supply.
   The furnace (see drawing) is composed of the three reels of different lengths, wherein the first and third diameters are the same drums. The first drum is equipped with Valium grippers engaged by rotating furnace uniform nutrition second drum. The first drum is partially funded and acts as a drying drum. The second and third reels are directly connected with thermal treatment of the granules. The first and second drum rigidly interconnected and have one drive.
   Uniform nutrition oven allows you to have a constant layer of material in the first and second drums that promotes optimal heat treatment regime and improve the quality of expanded clay gravel for bulk density and strength.
   Furnace conveyor device is expressed as unit formula:
   Q = 60pFV, (1)
   where p - bulk density material t/m3; F - section of the layer of material in the furnace, m2; V - velocity of the material through the kiln, m / min.
   If L - length of the furnace, and t - residence time of the material in a furnace, then:
   V = L / t. (2)
   Critical question about the performance of rotary kilns to date has no unique solution. There are only empirical formula to determine the performance in some particular cases. With a little filling, having a place to practice, there is a formula:
   t = Lsiny / (pDn tgd). (3)
   Here, L - the length of the furnace in meters; D - inner diameter (in the clear) in meters furnace; y - the angle of repose of the material; n - number of revolutions per minute in the furnace; d - the angle of inclination to the horizontal axis of the furnace, expressed in radians.
   Known semi-empirical formula which is widely used in the cement industry:
   t = 0,031 (y0 +24) L / (pDn tgd).
   Here all symbols are the same, but y0 - degrees.
   Calculations show that the formulas (1) and (3) give very similar results.
   From the formulas (2) and (3) we obtain
   V = 60pDn tgd / siny. (4)
   Substituting this value of the velocity in the formula (1) and replacing it in the area of ​​the segment:
   F = KpD2 / 4 (5)
   where K - factor of filling material kiln furnace productivity obtain as conveying apparatus:
   Q = 148D3ndKg/siny. (6)
   If we take the average angle of repose of y = 40 and angle of the axis of the furnace is measured in degrees, ie, to replace:
   d = d0p/180,
   we obtain:
   Q = 4D3nd0Kg. (7)
   From formula (7) is equal to the duty ratio:
   K = Q / (4D3ndg). (8)
   Performance is directly proportional to the diameter of the furnace (in light) to the third power, the number of revolutions n, the angle of inclination to the horizontal axis of the furnace and the duty ratio K. The fill factor K must have a maximum value which is not broken even quality of the finished product. For small values ​​of reduced productivity, and overly large values ​​lead to the fact that some of the material can not go to a heat treatment. This ratio can only be determined empirically.
   In expression (8) includes the product of the number of revolutions n tilting at an angle d. If the speed increase and decrease the angle of inclination of the furnace, it is not possible to increase the performance of reducing the update rate for the lining material, to improve its alignment layer temperature, increase the temperature difference between the lining and the material which would increase the heat transfer from the lining to the material.
   Thus, the filling factor of K is of paramount importance in the kilns, and the creation of automatic devices to maintain a constant and rational values ​​of K, of course, increases the productivity and quality of the finished product.