Increased  strength  of  brickwork  from  the  presentation  of  the  real  results.  Part  2
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Protect the surface of the concrete floor
To protect the concrete floor, which is operated in the normal mode, or is subject to wear in areas with high traffic, there are several ways to protect the surface.
   Comparable ways: their cost, appearance and ability to perform the task to protect.
   In this article, we consider three ways to finish and protect the floor. Each of them has its advantages and disadvantages.
   Thin fil...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 3
When used as part of exhaustion moderator comes coagulation and solidification of liquid glass. However, due to the presence in the composition of Portland cement with a finishing time is an increase strength of the coating due to hydration of cement minerals. Thus from colloids formed during the coagulation liquid glass are actively assigned to the water for hydration of cement, a porous media formed tumors filled Portland cement, which leads to...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 2
Studies in Berlin Institute Federal institute for Materials Research and Testing, show that the average density of 1730 kg/m3 brick large proportion of pores having a size in excess of 1 micron is more than 90% [3] and they are responsible for the increased migration of fluids through brickwork.
   Most fully meet these requirements structure obtained by coagulation and water-soluble potassium silicate forming silica with a high sp...

Modernization and repair of self-propelled machines. (3)
Hardening electrolysis BORATING hinge pins and bushings mates working equipment hydraulic excavators EO-4121 (EA-4321) gives an increase in wear resistance 4-6 times compared to the bulk quenching details.
   Taking into account the high wear resistance of brazed blades, hardened sintered alloys (see Table 1), are recommended for carbide knives dumps graders DZ-122 and RS-98, combined machine E-405 based on KAMAZ, for front dumps a t...

Specialized exhibition Architecture. Construction (END)
Mari-lime brick and gas silicate blocks
   JSC "MZSK" produces silicate brick and a half, color (white, yellow, black, red, blue, green, brown).
   For the production of silica brick used quartz sand from quarries near the plant. Limestone enters the factory with Dobryatinskogo deposit Vladimir region. Silicate brick (Table 1) is used for masonry exterior and interior walls of buildings and structures, as well as ...

Geophysical processes primers and security. Part 5
In the center of Moscow can distinguish vertical structure comprising a crashing into the Earth`s crust magma elongated cylinder (Fig. 2) [5]. In the center section marked lack of extensive vertical zone converted waves ("blind spot"), going from the depths of 70-80 km to 7.5 km. Such "blind spots" are characteristic of the earth`s crust with the introduction of monolithic dense mantle rocks such as gabbro, diabase, etc. In such a zone Tashkent e...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 1
The quality of the decoration of buildings for new construction and reconstruction depend not only on their aesthetic, but also the operational parameters, as good-quality finish - a guarantee of durable service basic designs, long maintenance-free operation, the costs for maintenance and care. Traditional binders used for the production of finishing compositions, liquid glass is widely used, but it has some drawback: coatings based on it gaining...

On possible amendments to the equation Griffiths
Griffith presented a picture of destruction allowed to formulate the problem of determining conditions of the beginning of crack propagation and find its general solution.
   As seen from the above schemes, in the process of crack propagation material directly adjacent to it "coasts" unloaded relaxes. This means that the stress and strain it decreases, and the elastic energy stored earlier in this area of ​​the body is re...

Construction skyscrapers - the requirements of modernity. Part 4
The program is a high-rise building in Moscow
   The project is now a high-rise building in Moscow is implemented in two main areas: the construction of business center "Moscow City" and implementation of the program of the Government of Moscow "New Ring of Russia."
   1. Moscow international business center "Moscow - City"
   The project includes the construction of buildings on the territory of abou...

Degree project - beginning of the road. (3)
Given the great diversity of subject matter and content of diplomas in various specialties, the jury is faced with great difficulties in determining the winners - "Who better violinist or a dancer?". Nevertheless, often based on emotional perception and can estimate the relevance and novelty, and the author`s contribution to the thesis project or job. Absolute winners in recent years have been graduates of Rostov CSO GASU St. Petersburg, Nizhny N...


 Information for builders



 Increased  strength  of  brickwork  from  the  presentation  of  the  real  results.  Part  2

The most promising direction can be considered to increase the strength of masonry with maximum use of opportunities strength brick and mortar. First of all it is necessary to determine the possible causes of the destruction of masonry and to reduce their impact. The main causes of the destruction of brick and mortar as follows:
   - The destruction of stone or mortar at
   - The lack of robustness of the contact area brick and mortar compressive horizontal joints;
   - Insufficient adhesive strength brick and mortar vertical joints;
   - The destruction of brick at a bend due to the imperfection of the mortar bed;
   - Lack of grip on the cut because of uneven stress and strain fields brick and mortar masonry joints.
   Masonry should be considered as complex structured composite material, which amounts to 80-85% consists of a brick, so to improve the efficiency of masonry must make fuller use of the strength of the brick. "Ideal" masonry from this point of view will be masonry, comparable in strength to the original brick or stone.
   Study of multi-level structure of masonry allowed to establish basic patterns of interaction between structural elements and formulate principles for selecting a set of measures to enhance the strength of masonry. The most promising interventions are the following:
   On the mega-level:
   - The use of lateral reinforcement.
   At the macro level:
   - Selection of large format ceramic brick of adhesion with a solution which is maximal (clutch silica brick with a solution of 20% and below);
   - Selection of the solution that provides high compressive strength and tensile.
   At the meso level:
   - Increasing mobility solution (slump 12-13 cm);
   - Supplement natural plasticizers, increasing homogeneity of the mixture and water-holding capacity of the solution.
   At the micro level:
   - Selection of the optimum particle size distribution of the sand;
   - Optimum water-cement ratio in the solution.
   On submikrourovne:
   - Choose the type of binder and additives, modifiers;
   - Increase of vintage knitting.
   On the basis of the selected events were manufactured samples clutch shown in Fig. 2.
   Interaction of structural masonry elements significant level (brick, mortar, horizontal and vertical joints) estimated strain gauges on their deformations along and across the line of load application. Masonry strength increased to 168 kgf/cm2. While the actual value of the strength exceeded 2.8 times the estimated coefficient for the same reinforcement.
   To date, the standard design strength of masonry is 15-30% on the strength of brick or stone. The experiments show that the complex actions for increasing the strength of masonry above, it is able to bring to original strength brick or stone.
   1. Perederiy GP Rates concrete bridges. - Moscow: Gostekhizdat 1933.
   2. Prigogine I., Stengers I. Order
   of chaos. - Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1986, 431 p.
   3. "Standards and Specifications for the design
   masonry and reinforced masonry structures "(Neetu 120-55). 1956.
   4. SNIP II-22-81 masonry and reinforced masonry structures. - M.: Stroiizdat
   1983. - 39.
   5. Komokhov PG, Belentsov YA Improvement of methods for reinforcing masonry / / Building Materials. 2004, 1, p 33.