XXI  century  -  a  century  concrete  and  reinforced  concrete
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Protect the surface of the concrete floor
To protect the concrete floor, which is operated in the normal mode, or is subject to wear in areas with high traffic, there are several ways to protect the surface.
   Comparable ways: their cost, appearance and ability to perform the task to protect.
   In this article, we consider three ways to finish and protect the floor. Each of them has its advantages and disadvantages.
  
   Thin fil...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 3
When used as part of exhaustion moderator comes coagulation and solidification of liquid glass. However, due to the presence in the composition of Portland cement with a finishing time is an increase strength of the coating due to hydration of cement minerals. Thus from colloids formed during the coagulation liquid glass are actively assigned to the water for hydration of cement, a porous media formed tumors filled Portland cement, which leads to...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 2
Studies in Berlin Institute Federal institute for Materials Research and Testing, show that the average density of 1730 kg/m3 brick large proportion of pores having a size in excess of 1 micron is more than 90% [3] and they are responsible for the increased migration of fluids through brickwork.
   Most fully meet these requirements structure obtained by coagulation and water-soluble potassium silicate forming silica with a high sp...

Modernization and repair of self-propelled machines. (3)
Hardening electrolysis BORATING hinge pins and bushings mates working equipment hydraulic excavators EO-4121 (EA-4321) gives an increase in wear resistance 4-6 times compared to the bulk quenching details.
   Taking into account the high wear resistance of brazed blades, hardened sintered alloys (see Table 1), are recommended for carbide knives dumps graders DZ-122 and RS-98, combined machine E-405 based on KAMAZ, for front dumps a t...

Specialized exhibition Architecture. Construction (END)
Mari-lime brick and gas silicate blocks
   JSC "MZSK" produces silicate brick and a half, color (white, yellow, black, red, blue, green, brown).
   For the production of silica brick used quartz sand from quarries near the plant. Limestone enters the factory with Dobryatinskogo deposit Vladimir region. Silicate brick (Table 1) is used for masonry exterior and interior walls of buildings and structures, as well as ...

Geophysical processes primers and security. Part 5
In the center of Moscow can distinguish vertical structure comprising a crashing into the Earth`s crust magma elongated cylinder (Fig. 2) [5]. In the center section marked lack of extensive vertical zone converted waves ("blind spot"), going from the depths of 70-80 km to 7.5 km. Such "blind spots" are characteristic of the earth`s crust with the introduction of monolithic dense mantle rocks such as gabbro, diabase, etc. In such a zone Tashkent e...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 1
The quality of the decoration of buildings for new construction and reconstruction depend not only on their aesthetic, but also the operational parameters, as good-quality finish - a guarantee of durable service basic designs, long maintenance-free operation, the costs for maintenance and care. Traditional binders used for the production of finishing compositions, liquid glass is widely used, but it has some drawback: coatings based on it gaining...

On possible amendments to the equation Griffiths
Griffith presented a picture of destruction allowed to formulate the problem of determining conditions of the beginning of crack propagation and find its general solution.
   As seen from the above schemes, in the process of crack propagation material directly adjacent to it "coasts" unloaded relaxes. This means that the stress and strain it decreases, and the elastic energy stored earlier in this area of ​​the body is re...

Construction skyscrapers - the requirements of modernity. Part 4
The program is a high-rise building in Moscow
   The project is now a high-rise building in Moscow is implemented in two main areas: the construction of business center "Moscow City" and implementation of the program of the Government of Moscow "New Ring of Russia."
   1. Moscow international business center "Moscow - City"
   The project includes the construction of buildings on the territory of abou...

Degree project - beginning of the road. (3)
Given the great diversity of subject matter and content of diplomas in various specialties, the jury is faced with great difficulties in determining the winners - "Who better violinist or a dancer?". Nevertheless, often based on emotional perception and can estimate the relevance and novelty, and the author`s contribution to the thesis project or job. Absolute winners in recent years have been graduates of Rostov CSO GASU St. Petersburg, Nizhny N...

 

 
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 XXI  century  -  a  century  concrete  and  reinforced  concrete

The effect on the development of world civilization invention of reinforced concrete can be safely placed on a par with the discovery of electricity, or the advent of aviation. Its annual production around the globe more than 2 billion m3. No other product of industrial activity is not manufactured in such volumes.
   "I am deeply convinced of the unlimited possibilities of concrete" - wrote one of the greatest architects of the twentieth century Brazilian Oscar Niemeyer. Exceptionally highly valued properties of concrete as a material and other luminary architecture, Le Corbusier.
   The most notable buildings and structures built in developed countries in recent decades, made in reinforced concrete. This high-rise buildings, among them the world record, double skyscraper "Petronas" in Kuala Lumpur, towers, bridges, tunnels, religious buildings, among which we can not mention Christ the Savior Cathedral in Moscow, etc.
   Of international and domestic practice is seen as concrete is widely used in all sectors of construction, including the construction of buildings, infrastructure.
   The Commission of Experts of the European Union (EU) issued a report on the prospects of building in Europe until 2025. Developed criteria to be met by the most advanced building materials. The main criteria are:
   Minimum withdrawal of natural resources in their production and maximum use of products (waste) other industries;
   higher than currently used materials strength and durability;
   compatibility with other kinds of materials;
   processability for construction or other purposes;
   Cost-effectiveness;
   high aesthetic and architectural quality;
   environmental safety in the production and operation.
   These criteria is most relevant to the concrete.
   Environmental problems are global in nature, and in this task concrete plays an important role, with regard to all three environments: air basin, soil and water. Even with the protection of the air basin, there is the possibility of processing of captured emissions for the production of binders.
   Crucial role played by concrete as the main material for the construction of environmental protection facilities, septic tanks, reservoirs, pipes, aeration, NPP containments, etc. The absence of these structures would be catastrophic for the environment irreversibly.
   In addition to high construction and technical qualities, concrete favorably environmental safety for the environment. And these factors when selecting materials for mass construction in the coming years will be decisive. For the production of one ton of steel is necessary to process 20 tons of primary resources, 19 of which in the form of waste back into the environment. The production of concrete does not hazardous waste and, in principle, be completely waste-free. In other words, the cost per tonne of steel is 30 times higher than for the production of one ton of concrete.
   Concrete itself after exhausting life can again be recycled for construction purposes.
   Production of concrete and reinforced concrete per capita is in Japan for more than 2 m3, USA - 1.3 Germany - 1.1 m3. In Russia, about 0.4 m3. This material is subject to wider global cooperation in many international and regional organizations such as the International Federation of Reinforced - FIB, International Federation of precast concrete - BIBM, American Concrete Institute - ACI, etc.
  
   To be continued

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