Options  design  decisions  attic  floor  reconstructed  dwellings  (2)
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Protect the surface of the concrete floor
To protect the concrete floor, which is operated in the normal mode, or is subject to wear in areas with high traffic, there are several ways to protect the surface.
   Comparable ways: their cost, appearance and ability to perform the task to protect.
   In this article, we consider three ways to finish and protect the floor. Each of them has its advantages and disadvantages.
   Thin fil...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 3
When used as part of exhaustion moderator comes coagulation and solidification of liquid glass. However, due to the presence in the composition of Portland cement with a finishing time is an increase strength of the coating due to hydration of cement minerals. Thus from colloids formed during the coagulation liquid glass are actively assigned to the water for hydration of cement, a porous media formed tumors filled Portland cement, which leads to...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 2
Studies in Berlin Institute Federal institute for Materials Research and Testing, show that the average density of 1730 kg/m3 brick large proportion of pores having a size in excess of 1 micron is more than 90% [3] and they are responsible for the increased migration of fluids through brickwork.
   Most fully meet these requirements structure obtained by coagulation and water-soluble potassium silicate forming silica with a high sp...

Modernization and repair of self-propelled machines. (3)
Hardening electrolysis BORATING hinge pins and bushings mates working equipment hydraulic excavators EO-4121 (EA-4321) gives an increase in wear resistance 4-6 times compared to the bulk quenching details.
   Taking into account the high wear resistance of brazed blades, hardened sintered alloys (see Table 1), are recommended for carbide knives dumps graders DZ-122 and RS-98, combined machine E-405 based on KAMAZ, for front dumps a t...

Specialized exhibition Architecture. Construction (END)
Mari-lime brick and gas silicate blocks
   JSC "MZSK" produces silicate brick and a half, color (white, yellow, black, red, blue, green, brown).
   For the production of silica brick used quartz sand from quarries near the plant. Limestone enters the factory with Dobryatinskogo deposit Vladimir region. Silicate brick (Table 1) is used for masonry exterior and interior walls of buildings and structures, as well as ...

Geophysical processes primers and security. Part 5
In the center of Moscow can distinguish vertical structure comprising a crashing into the Earth`s crust magma elongated cylinder (Fig. 2) [5]. In the center section marked lack of extensive vertical zone converted waves ("blind spot"), going from the depths of 70-80 km to 7.5 km. Such "blind spots" are characteristic of the earth`s crust with the introduction of monolithic dense mantle rocks such as gabbro, diabase, etc. In such a zone Tashkent e...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 1
The quality of the decoration of buildings for new construction and reconstruction depend not only on their aesthetic, but also the operational parameters, as good-quality finish - a guarantee of durable service basic designs, long maintenance-free operation, the costs for maintenance and care. Traditional binders used for the production of finishing compositions, liquid glass is widely used, but it has some drawback: coatings based on it gaining...

On possible amendments to the equation Griffiths
Griffith presented a picture of destruction allowed to formulate the problem of determining conditions of the beginning of crack propagation and find its general solution.
   As seen from the above schemes, in the process of crack propagation material directly adjacent to it "coasts" unloaded relaxes. This means that the stress and strain it decreases, and the elastic energy stored earlier in this area of ​​the body is re...

Construction skyscrapers - the requirements of modernity. Part 4
The program is a high-rise building in Moscow
   The project is now a high-rise building in Moscow is implemented in two main areas: the construction of business center "Moscow City" and implementation of the program of the Government of Moscow "New Ring of Russia."
   1. Moscow international business center "Moscow - City"
   The project includes the construction of buildings on the territory of abou...

Degree project - beginning of the road. (3)
Given the great diversity of subject matter and content of diplomas in various specialties, the jury is faced with great difficulties in determining the winners - "Who better violinist or a dancer?". Nevertheless, often based on emotional perception and can estimate the relevance and novelty, and the author`s contribution to the thesis project or job. Absolute winners in recent years have been graduates of Rostov CSO GASU St. Petersburg, Nizhny N...


 Information for builders



 Options  design  decisions  attic  floor  reconstructed  dwellings  (2)

When the superstructure attics should prefer solutions providing (with specific conditions), the maximum increase in the area, as it reduces the unit cost per unit of additional space.
   If you want to increase the height of the existing building and its design solutions not designed to take the additional loads appropriate to apply Non load add-ins (including attic) dimensions exceeding the dimensions of the existing building, with a device independent support structures located outside the building volume of the building. These designs can be solved as bay windows, loggias, freestanding pylons.
   Note that an increase in the number of floors of the reconstructed houses and attic floor level builds on more than 16 m (from ground level) must lift device. Installing the latest (usually with a garbage disposal) significantly increases the comfort of the home, but is associated with significant increases in the cost of construction and operation.
   Sibling attic effective in the reconstruction of five-storey buildings (they do not require elevators). In order to further increase the width of the area of ​​the attic is advisable due to the device console departures 1.2-1.7 m2.
   Duplex Loft device compared with single-level provides a greater gain in the area. They can be used in the reconstruction of 3-4-storey, and in the presence of elevators and 5-storey residential buildings.
   Duplex attic solved layerwise arrangement of apartments or organization with them in two levels.
   The first scheme gives the best performance use of the area by eliminating the duplication of internal stairs and separate utility room.
   The second scheme, in some cases (for example, add-4-storey buildings) avoids the use of elevators and reduce the cost of construction.
   Technology and organization of work on the construction of attic floors without relocation of tenants require the use of lightweight construction, ensuring the reduction of weight of the superstructure and adapted for mounting their small-sized elements.
   Stocks carrying capacity constructions houses first mass and foundation soils in some cases sufficient for the add several floors of these buildings. If necessary, may increase load-bearing structures.
   In AIIST AB-designed options mansard construction aggregated spatial units.
   Given the brevity of installation work when installing these units, they can carry out the withdrawal of the last occupants of the apartments on two floors at the time of installation.
   Constructive solutions volumetric flow device attic rooms provide maximum weight reduction and stiffness elements necessary for their transportation and installation.
   Analysis of foreign and domestic experience with housing reconstruction device attics, research, experimental design and construction of a number of objects confirm the effectiveness of this method to maintain the existing housing stock through its reconstruction and simultaneous build housing areas.
   In the current economic conditions in Russia to solve the housing problem, especially for low-income citizens in the next 10 years can be realized, mainly due to the add-in attic floors simultaneously with the reconstruction or overhaul of existing homes.