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Protect the surface of the concrete floor
To protect the concrete floor, which is operated in the normal mode, or is subject to wear in areas with high traffic, there are several ways to protect the surface.
   Comparable ways: their cost, appearance and ability to perform the task to protect.
   In this article, we consider three ways to finish and protect the floor. Each of them has its advantages and disadvantages.
   Thin fil...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 3
When used as part of exhaustion moderator comes coagulation and solidification of liquid glass. However, due to the presence in the composition of Portland cement with a finishing time is an increase strength of the coating due to hydration of cement minerals. Thus from colloids formed during the coagulation liquid glass are actively assigned to the water for hydration of cement, a porous media formed tumors filled Portland cement, which leads to...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 2
Studies in Berlin Institute Federal institute for Materials Research and Testing, show that the average density of 1730 kg/m3 brick large proportion of pores having a size in excess of 1 micron is more than 90% [3] and they are responsible for the increased migration of fluids through brickwork.
   Most fully meet these requirements structure obtained by coagulation and water-soluble potassium silicate forming silica with a high sp...

Modernization and repair of self-propelled machines. (3)
Hardening electrolysis BORATING hinge pins and bushings mates working equipment hydraulic excavators EO-4121 (EA-4321) gives an increase in wear resistance 4-6 times compared to the bulk quenching details.
   Taking into account the high wear resistance of brazed blades, hardened sintered alloys (see Table 1), are recommended for carbide knives dumps graders DZ-122 and RS-98, combined machine E-405 based on KAMAZ, for front dumps a t...

Specialized exhibition Architecture. Construction (END)
Mari-lime brick and gas silicate blocks
   JSC "MZSK" produces silicate brick and a half, color (white, yellow, black, red, blue, green, brown).
   For the production of silica brick used quartz sand from quarries near the plant. Limestone enters the factory with Dobryatinskogo deposit Vladimir region. Silicate brick (Table 1) is used for masonry exterior and interior walls of buildings and structures, as well as ...

Geophysical processes primers and security. Part 5
In the center of Moscow can distinguish vertical structure comprising a crashing into the Earth`s crust magma elongated cylinder (Fig. 2) [5]. In the center section marked lack of extensive vertical zone converted waves ("blind spot"), going from the depths of 70-80 km to 7.5 km. Such "blind spots" are characteristic of the earth`s crust with the introduction of monolithic dense mantle rocks such as gabbro, diabase, etc. In such a zone Tashkent e...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 1
The quality of the decoration of buildings for new construction and reconstruction depend not only on their aesthetic, but also the operational parameters, as good-quality finish - a guarantee of durable service basic designs, long maintenance-free operation, the costs for maintenance and care. Traditional binders used for the production of finishing compositions, liquid glass is widely used, but it has some drawback: coatings based on it gaining...

On possible amendments to the equation Griffiths
Griffith presented a picture of destruction allowed to formulate the problem of determining conditions of the beginning of crack propagation and find its general solution.
   As seen from the above schemes, in the process of crack propagation material directly adjacent to it "coasts" unloaded relaxes. This means that the stress and strain it decreases, and the elastic energy stored earlier in this area of ​​the body is re...

Construction skyscrapers - the requirements of modernity. Part 4
The program is a high-rise building in Moscow
   The project is now a high-rise building in Moscow is implemented in two main areas: the construction of business center "Moscow City" and implementation of the program of the Government of Moscow "New Ring of Russia."
   1. Moscow international business center "Moscow - City"
   The project includes the construction of buildings on the territory of abou...

Degree project - beginning of the road. (3)
Given the great diversity of subject matter and content of diplomas in various specialties, the jury is faced with great difficulties in determining the winners - "Who better violinist or a dancer?". Nevertheless, often based on emotional perception and can estimate the relevance and novelty, and the author`s contribution to the thesis project or job. Absolute winners in recent years have been graduates of Rostov CSO GASU St. Petersburg, Nizhny N...


 Information for builders



 Opportunities  and  prospects  ultralight  keramzito

Preparation of ultra-light expanded clay opens a new page in the development of high-quality production keramzite inevitable evolution of methods and areas of use. To assess these factors, we consider the change in strength and thermal conductivity of the pellets.
   Strength. According to numerous studies, the increase in strength of expanded clay granules occurs when the thermal hardening in cooling mode and entering reinforcing additives. To illustrate the influence of these factors we use the work of Tito VT [1].
   Shows the dependence of the strength of the bulk density of the pellets expanded clay.
   Estimated equation strength keramzit.
   The thermal conductivity of the pellets
   The thermal conductivity of expanded clay ultralight proper granules, ie, when (r) <250 kg/m3, is one of the main parameters determining the possibility of its widespread use. But experimental work in this range (r) unavailable. The minimum value of this quantity as follows:
   experiments NIIkeramzita [3] - 248 kg/m3;
   the compilation NIIzhelezobetona [4] - 266.5 kg/m3;
   NIIstroyfiziki studies [5] - 300 kg/m3.
   However prediction of l in range of interest r is mathematically possible, since all dependencies lgran = f (r) must begin with a dot l at r = 0.
   However, extrapolation of the experimental data on the y-axis shows the higher values ​​of l0.
   Analysis of the relationship l = f (r) for expanded clay by [7] as modified by the convective air l mezhkuskovom in space and subject to a fine-mesh structure with expanded clay swelling in a reducing atmosphere [8] gives l0 = 0,03177> 0,032 W / m C.
   From the data most suitable for further analysis is a generalization NIIzhelezobetona.
   Using fine expanded clay
   A significant part of thermal insulation materials consumed in the form of fine-grained. If crush ultralight clayite to fractions, for example, 1-3 mm, it can be compared with the materials used.
   Expanded clay has the same order as the main synthetic insulation materials, ie the possibility of replacing synthetic haydite beyond doubt.
   Using the expanded clay pellets
   Method of using expanded clay pellets determined what will be filled mezhkuskovoe space. In principle, it may be a composition based on ceramic or concrete. To analyze received clayite when r = 150 kg/m3, and l = 0,056 W / m C.
   Expanded clay lightweight concrete
   The interesting combination of ultra-light expanded clay and foam. Claydite foam thermal conductivity, such as the initial density foam 500 kg/m3, 2.2 times less than the same figure foam.
   This allows us to return to the issue, which led in time to stop the practice expanded clay industry, the creation of single-walled lightweight aggregate concrete panels with high heat resistance - up to d / l = 3 m2 C / W and more.
   Figure 4 shows the dependence of the thermal resistance claydite foam concrete panel with power stacking keramzit e = 0,65 and the strength of the panel P = 3 MPa.
   As follows from Figure 4, using the original foam density of 816 kg/m3 and its saturation haydite r = 150 kg/m3 thermal resistance power panel d / l = 3,7 m2 C / W, which exceeds the requirements [8] .
   Keramzit cr = 150 kg/m3 is suitable for preparing light keramsit parameters are given in the table.
   Filling mezhkuskovogo space filling expanded clay ceramic material is of great practical interest.
   First, ultra-light expanded clay - this is the best from the point of view of heat engineering option of porous ceramics with multiple (proportional to the thickness of products) reduction in fuel consumption at its firing.
   Second, the thermal conductivity of expanded clay pellets below l possible placeholders mezhkuskovogo space. Therefore, in the manufacture of expanded products is necessary to ensure the maximum degree of its styling that the regulated multifractional composed of expanded clay is a real challenge. Calculated two versions of products:
   Keramzite insulation, filler - keramoverkulit (UralNIIstromproekta development) with l = 0,085 W/m2 C, P = 0.3 MPa; parameters insulation l = 0,06 W / m C, the strength of 0.87 MPa;
   keramzitokeramichesky block ceramics filler, block parameters l = 0,08 W / m C and P = 3,5 MPa. Keramzitokeramichesky unit is the most effective building material for the construction of low-rise, not only for the above parameters, but also the lowest cost among the famous wall materials through the use of cheap expanded clay produced using energy-saving technologies [9].
   Wall ideal comfort
   The theory of an ideal home comfort [10] provides for the construction of the building materials of mineral origin living spaces with wood cabin comfort level.
   The decisive condition for such a solution is to create a two-layer wall with inner panel of materials with high thermal insulation and filtering properties.
   The influence of these properties on the comfort of the room described in [10].
   As follows from [10], the use of materials made using ultra-light expanded clay, provides comfort coefficient K <1, ie Create a comfortable space better than in a wooden hut. Especially note the expanded clay keramoperlit giving comfort factor of 0.53, ie almost twice as well as a wooden hut.
   Using ultra-light expanded clay as a product developed knowledge-based technology covers virtually all areas of thermal insulation materials in housing construction to the modern demands and is a promising material for a perfect comfort facilities.
   Therefore, one of the most urgent tasks is to upgrade the construction industry expanded clay industry-to-date knowledge.
   1. Tito VT Studies of structure formation increase keramzito gravel Dissertation. VNIISTROM, 1968.
   2. Economic information on the work of industry porous aggregates of the USSR for the period 1981-1985. NIIkeramzit. Kuibyshev, 1986.
   3. Komissarenko BS Effect of phase composition on the thermal conductivity of expanded clay. Proceedings NIIkeramzita number 7. 1979.
   4. Dovzhik VG, Jaime IS, Vorskain BV Production of lightweight aggregate concrete panels with improved properties. Overview VNIIESM "a series of three. MY. 3. M., 1988.
   5. Kim L. Ways to improve the exterior panel walls of residential buildings with porous aggregates. Dissertation NIIstroyfiziki. M., 1987.
   6. Kaufman VN Thermal conductivity of building materials. Stroyizdat 1955.
   7. SNIP I-3-79. ** Chapter 3 Building Heat Engineering, 1986.
   8. Resolution of the Construction Committee of Russia from 11.08.95 18-81.
   9. BV Gusev, VM Dement`ev Energy saving (15 kg.usl.t/m3) technology polusostav ultralight (150 kg/m3) expanded clay. Building Materials XXI century number 2, 1999.
   10. BV Gusev, VM Dement`ev An ideal home comfort. Building Materials of the XXI century. Number 1, 1999.