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Protect the surface of the concrete floor
To protect the concrete floor, which is operated in the normal mode, or is subject to wear in areas with high traffic, there are several ways to protect the surface.
   Comparable ways: their cost, appearance and ability to perform the task to protect.
   In this article, we consider three ways to finish and protect the floor. Each of them has its advantages and disadvantages.
  
   Thin fil...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 3
When used as part of exhaustion moderator comes coagulation and solidification of liquid glass. However, due to the presence in the composition of Portland cement with a finishing time is an increase strength of the coating due to hydration of cement minerals. Thus from colloids formed during the coagulation liquid glass are actively assigned to the water for hydration of cement, a porous media formed tumors filled Portland cement, which leads to...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 2
Studies in Berlin Institute Federal institute for Materials Research and Testing, show that the average density of 1730 kg/m3 brick large proportion of pores having a size in excess of 1 micron is more than 90% [3] and they are responsible for the increased migration of fluids through brickwork.
   Most fully meet these requirements structure obtained by coagulation and water-soluble potassium silicate forming silica with a high sp...

Modernization and repair of self-propelled machines. (3)
Hardening electrolysis BORATING hinge pins and bushings mates working equipment hydraulic excavators EO-4121 (EA-4321) gives an increase in wear resistance 4-6 times compared to the bulk quenching details.
   Taking into account the high wear resistance of brazed blades, hardened sintered alloys (see Table 1), are recommended for carbide knives dumps graders DZ-122 and RS-98, combined machine E-405 based on KAMAZ, for front dumps a t...

Specialized exhibition Architecture. Construction (END)
Mari-lime brick and gas silicate blocks
   JSC "MZSK" produces silicate brick and a half, color (white, yellow, black, red, blue, green, brown).
   For the production of silica brick used quartz sand from quarries near the plant. Limestone enters the factory with Dobryatinskogo deposit Vladimir region. Silicate brick (Table 1) is used for masonry exterior and interior walls of buildings and structures, as well as ...

Geophysical processes primers and security. Part 5
In the center of Moscow can distinguish vertical structure comprising a crashing into the Earth`s crust magma elongated cylinder (Fig. 2) [5]. In the center section marked lack of extensive vertical zone converted waves ("blind spot"), going from the depths of 70-80 km to 7.5 km. Such "blind spots" are characteristic of the earth`s crust with the introduction of monolithic dense mantle rocks such as gabbro, diabase, etc. In such a zone Tashkent e...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 1
The quality of the decoration of buildings for new construction and reconstruction depend not only on their aesthetic, but also the operational parameters, as good-quality finish - a guarantee of durable service basic designs, long maintenance-free operation, the costs for maintenance and care. Traditional binders used for the production of finishing compositions, liquid glass is widely used, but it has some drawback: coatings based on it gaining...

On possible amendments to the equation Griffiths
Griffith presented a picture of destruction allowed to formulate the problem of determining conditions of the beginning of crack propagation and find its general solution.
   As seen from the above schemes, in the process of crack propagation material directly adjacent to it "coasts" unloaded relaxes. This means that the stress and strain it decreases, and the elastic energy stored earlier in this area of ​​the body is re...

Construction skyscrapers - the requirements of modernity. Part 4
The program is a high-rise building in Moscow
   The project is now a high-rise building in Moscow is implemented in two main areas: the construction of business center "Moscow City" and implementation of the program of the Government of Moscow "New Ring of Russia."
   1. Moscow international business center "Moscow - City"
   The project includes the construction of buildings on the territory of abou...

Degree project - beginning of the road. (3)
Given the great diversity of subject matter and content of diplomas in various specialties, the jury is faced with great difficulties in determining the winners - "Who better violinist or a dancer?". Nevertheless, often based on emotional perception and can estimate the relevance and novelty, and the author`s contribution to the thesis project or job. Absolute winners in recent years have been graduates of Rostov CSO GASU St. Petersburg, Nizhny N...

 

 
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 Electroheaters  DIESEL


  

  Specific factors of the use of vehicles on the roads of our country should include weather conditions with low ambient temperature. Under these conditions, loss occurs diesel wax crystals contained in the fuel, fuel filters that clog , resulting in difficulty in starting and operating the engine .

   There are well-known means to eliminate this phenomenon :

   - The use of winter and arctic fuel grades . However, they are expensive and not always at filling stations;

   - The use of thinning additives which have their drawbacks.


  

  In view of this is currently used to solve the problem of diesel fuel heating to a temperature above its " cloud point " as electric heaters and heaters that use the heat of the engine . However, the application of the latter is limited because of their low efficiency when starting a cold engine . Electric heaters are faster, more efficiently and with minimal losses fuel heated up to operating temperature and are capable of changing the transmit power depending on the fuel consumption.

   In developed by SPE " Spetspribor " diesel electric heater heating elements formed on a ceramic with a positive temperature coefficient ( PTC thermistor ) which in comparison with the metal or carbon heating elements have a number of advantages. Fig . 1 shows the dependence of the electrical resistance of the thermistor temperature. At temperatures below the critical electrical resistance heating element is low and virtually constant . When there is a sharp critical temperature ( several orders of magnitude ) the increase in electrical resistance . The critical temperature can be adjusted in the manufacture of PTC thermistors by introducing appropriate additives. For automotive diesel fuel heaters are commonly used ceramic heating elements with a critical temperature of 60 to 180 degrees C.

   When an electric current is rapidly heated thermistor to a certain temperature due to its low initial resistance and , consequently, a greater power consumption. Then stop the heating due to a sharp increase in resistance, which causes a decrease in power consumption as long as it is equal to the power consumed . At this point, the thermal equilibrium is achieved and sets mode self heater . The change of electrical voltage during operation in the mode of self-regulation has negligible effect on the operating temperature of the preheater .

   Currently the use of automotive heaters with PTC heating elements is a well-established solution due to their significant advantages :

   - Temperature control heater is not dependent on the fuel consumption , ambient temperature and power supply voltage ;

   - Simple design of the heating system , does not require complicated electronic circuits regulate the temperature ; - high reliability and durability ;

   - Minimal power consumption .

   The scope of PTC heaters heated fuel system includes a fuel filter module fine fuel , fuel intake and wires with connectors and fuse box to connect to the vehicle`s electrical system .

   In order to facilitate the introduction and industrial use as possible on cars that are already in operation, and the newly produced , designed heated fuel modules installed between the lid and the body of commercially available fuel

   tion filters. Heating modules have the same design and differ only in some size and number of heating elements.


  

  To be continued .


  

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