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Protect the surface of the concrete floor
To protect the concrete floor, which is operated in the normal mode, or is subject to wear in areas with high traffic, there are several ways to protect the surface.
   Comparable ways: their cost, appearance and ability to perform the task to protect.
   In this article, we consider three ways to finish and protect the floor. Each of them has its advantages and disadvantages.
   Thin fil...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 3
When used as part of exhaustion moderator comes coagulation and solidification of liquid glass. However, due to the presence in the composition of Portland cement with a finishing time is an increase strength of the coating due to hydration of cement minerals. Thus from colloids formed during the coagulation liquid glass are actively assigned to the water for hydration of cement, a porous media formed tumors filled Portland cement, which leads to...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 2
Studies in Berlin Institute Federal institute for Materials Research and Testing, show that the average density of 1730 kg/m3 brick large proportion of pores having a size in excess of 1 micron is more than 90% [3] and they are responsible for the increased migration of fluids through brickwork.
   Most fully meet these requirements structure obtained by coagulation and water-soluble potassium silicate forming silica with a high sp...

Modernization and repair of self-propelled machines. (3)
Hardening electrolysis BORATING hinge pins and bushings mates working equipment hydraulic excavators EO-4121 (EA-4321) gives an increase in wear resistance 4-6 times compared to the bulk quenching details.
   Taking into account the high wear resistance of brazed blades, hardened sintered alloys (see Table 1), are recommended for carbide knives dumps graders DZ-122 and RS-98, combined machine E-405 based on KAMAZ, for front dumps a t...

Specialized exhibition Architecture. Construction (END)
Mari-lime brick and gas silicate blocks
   JSC "MZSK" produces silicate brick and a half, color (white, yellow, black, red, blue, green, brown).
   For the production of silica brick used quartz sand from quarries near the plant. Limestone enters the factory with Dobryatinskogo deposit Vladimir region. Silicate brick (Table 1) is used for masonry exterior and interior walls of buildings and structures, as well as ...

Geophysical processes primers and security. Part 5
In the center of Moscow can distinguish vertical structure comprising a crashing into the Earth`s crust magma elongated cylinder (Fig. 2) [5]. In the center section marked lack of extensive vertical zone converted waves ("blind spot"), going from the depths of 70-80 km to 7.5 km. Such "blind spots" are characteristic of the earth`s crust with the introduction of monolithic dense mantle rocks such as gabbro, diabase, etc. In such a zone Tashkent e...

Finishing compositions based on water glass. Part 1
The quality of the decoration of buildings for new construction and reconstruction depend not only on their aesthetic, but also the operational parameters, as good-quality finish - a guarantee of durable service basic designs, long maintenance-free operation, the costs for maintenance and care. Traditional binders used for the production of finishing compositions, liquid glass is widely used, but it has some drawback: coatings based on it gaining...

On possible amendments to the equation Griffiths
Griffith presented a picture of destruction allowed to formulate the problem of determining conditions of the beginning of crack propagation and find its general solution.
   As seen from the above schemes, in the process of crack propagation material directly adjacent to it "coasts" unloaded relaxes. This means that the stress and strain it decreases, and the elastic energy stored earlier in this area of ​​the body is re...

Construction skyscrapers - the requirements of modernity. Part 4
The program is a high-rise building in Moscow
   The project is now a high-rise building in Moscow is implemented in two main areas: the construction of business center "Moscow City" and implementation of the program of the Government of Moscow "New Ring of Russia."
   1. Moscow international business center "Moscow - City"
   The project includes the construction of buildings on the territory of abou...

Degree project - beginning of the road. (3)
Given the great diversity of subject matter and content of diplomas in various specialties, the jury is faced with great difficulties in determining the winners - "Who better violinist or a dancer?". Nevertheless, often based on emotional perception and can estimate the relevance and novelty, and the author`s contribution to the thesis project or job. Absolute winners in recent years have been graduates of Rostov CSO GASU St. Petersburg, Nizhny N...


 Information for builders



 Building  materials  based  on  material  magnesian

Construction industry and its base - building materials consume huge amounts of minerals of different composition and properties. The free oksidf magnesium raw material for the manufacture of materials (cement, concrete, etc.) is strictly rationed guests and is 2-5%. This severely limits the possibilities for raw construction materials. Studies have shown that one of the most promising feedstocks for the production of building materials can be igneous rocks of ultrabasic composition (byproducts of ore dressing) containing magnesium silicates.
   Resulting from the processing of deposits of many minerals crushed mineral mass - associated products (powders, sand, gravel) stockpiled and stored in dumps (tailings), worsen the environmental situation in some areas of the country: the Kola Peninsula, the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. Inventories of raw materials are great: for individual arrays magnesian ultramafic rocks are more than 75 billion tons (to a depth of 100m) annual debit similar in composition of by-products of mining and ore beneficiation more than 100 million tons, and reserves accumulated in the dumps, the hundreds Mt For example, the amount of magnesium-containing raw materials impounded only some ore mining and processing enterprises (Kovdorsky, Don, Korshunov, etc. Kachkanarskij GOK) is more than 3 billion tons, storage which employs more than 150 square kilometers of land. Costs associated with transportation and storage service free of magnesia products, the order of 40,370.6 thousand. per year (in 1989 prices). Therefore, the use of this raw material has economic, environmental and social value. Compiled an inventory of raw materials containing magnesium silicates, in the territory of the Russian Federation. Along with this solved the problem of replacement of imported raw materials for construction materials imported from Ukraine. Kazakhstan and other CIS countries. Building materials that are based on non-conventional raw materials - are environmentally friendly and have a reduced permeability of radiation, which improves the conditions of the human environment.
   The work was conducted in accordance with the plan of a number of important topics programs of research works of various levels, including the state was included in the scientific and technical program "Stroyprogress" Ministry of Science and Technology Policy in Russia.
   Structural-crystalline magnesium silicates patterns, genetic features, high technical properties and their prevalence in nature are the basis for research on raw materials and development of scientific and technical bases of resource-saving technologies of production of new types of binders, glass, ceramics and other materials polydisperse. From the standpoint of industrial processing them into useful products offered classification of magnesium silicates and developed scientific methods of constructing various building materials: synthesis autoclave (pressure vapor-gas environment, temperature) - silicate concrete, gas silicate, fumed synthesis (calcining at temperatures in the range 800-1500 C) - ceramics, cement, ceramic pigments, glass, etc., management macrostructure artificial stone - mixing with cementitious mineral and organic matrix - fillers, extenders (see Fig.). The criteria in the use of raw materials for various purposes, as well as to investigate the mechanism of controlling the structure and performance characteristics obtained materials; works on optimization polydisperse compositions and certification of the products obtained. Studies have shown that magnesium-containing raw materials and based on it products are reduced radiation permeability. Findings: magnesium silicates as a result of mechanical or chemical treatment may be used in the production of clinker and mixed binders for the manufacture of dense and porous concrete. Magnesium silicates (technogenic raw materials Kovdorskiy, Kachkanarskogo GOKov etc.) were used as an active structuring additive for the production of binders brands 50-300 differing delayed hardening in the early stages, increased resistance to aggressive environments, etc., that may be recommended for the manufacture of autoclave materials, nizkomarochnyh mortar, concrete and other construction works. The possibility of producing a magnesia clinker and magnesia carbonate of raw materials in the production due to the modifying effect of magnesium silicate raw material mixture is lowered and the melt viscosity decreases at the calcination temperature on the average of 100-1500 C in comparison with conventional Portland cement.
   According to X-ray analysis indicated the formation of clinker phases and S2S aS2S, monticelite, mervenita and vyustita. Results of the study process clinker show a very complex chemical nature, provides for the receipt of cement clinker from raw materials containing up to 18% MgO. Phosphorate oxide impurity in free products (Kovdor) more than 2% reduction in the formation of cement clinker Alitova phase. Oxides of iron, magnesium, etc. to form solid solutions polymineral of clinker minerals. Magnesium oxide has a fine-grained structure, evenly distributed between the clinker minerals h then provides a uniform change in the volume of cement. The fine blend S4AF psevdomagnezialnogo brownmillerite and allows to increase the MgO content of the clinker. A number of builders, the study investigated clinkers also remove magnesia expansion causing uneven volume change of cement. Magnesia cement marks obtained 300 and above, slowly hardening.
   The fundamentals of the technical synthesis of various autoclave building materials based on magnesium silicates. The kinetics of phase formation in the systems (MgFe) 2SiO4-CaO-H2O and (CaMg) Si2O6-CaO-H2O under autoclave at a pressure synthesis paragozovoy environment from 0.9 to 100 MPa. X-ray diffraction, thermal, petrographic analysis revealed a complex physico-chemical conversion process to form complex aggregate compounds consisting of hydrated silicates of magnesium, such as antigorite, lizardite, yurupaita, tremolite, etc., as well as hydro-group minerals calcium and calcium-magnesium-iron silicates. Magnesium silicates have sorption properties which contributes to chemical reaction with calcium oxide, and obtaining a durable material. Autoclave treatment combined magnesium silicates (co-products) with calcium-containing additive is a major technological method obtaining high and sustainable building materials and dense cellular structure.
   To be continued.