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 Equipment  for  firing  keramzito

  Resolution of the State Construction Committee of 11.08.95 18-81, the requirements for the thermal resistance of external walls increased from d / g = 1 to 3. Gravels with industry to achieve the amount of product (gsr. = 450 kg / m) with the task failed. The main consumer of its products - panel construction - was dropped. Industry virtually stopped.

   At the same time, the analysis shows the results of numerous studies of the process porization clays, gravels industry has great potential for raising money, not used in connection with disabilities rotary kiln. Roasting expanded clay - a multistage process. Terms of intensification (increasing swelling coefficient K = ggl. / Gker.) Repeatedly investigated.

   Fig. 1. summarizes the results of research. The effect of increasing the expansion factor is calculated on an accrual basis in accordance with the process flowchart. Data are presented according to the distension of clay, measured by the accepted bulk density of expanded clay, resulting in a rotary kiln of the test clays.

   Fig. 1. Dependence of the stepwise increase of swelling ratio (reducing bulk density of expanded clay) on bulk density of expanded clay, resulting in a rotary kiln of the test clays.

   The curves on the graph:

   1 - rotary kiln

   2 - thermal treatment. Konoshenko GI (1)

   Clay (hereinafter ascending bulk density) smyshlyaevskaya, Engels, eldiginskaya, Losinoostrovskaya, Lufia tripoli, South hasinsky Argoli.

   3 - isothermal

   - In a fluidized bed. Przhetslavsky VL (2, 3)

   Clay: smyshlyaevskaya, Ushinsky, Uglich, Alexinsky shungizit, Naryan-Mar, syuz-Yale, Nadezhdinskaya, Vorkuta coal waste

   - A monolayer. Hovhannisyan RB (4)

   Clay: smyshlyaevskaya, lpastovskaya, Kazan, Beskudnikovsky Sokolovsky Kamensky

   4 - reducing atmosphere. AN Ryazancev (5)

   Clay: smyshlyaevskaya, parsukovskaya, Krasnoyarsk, Losinoostrovskaya, Volga, bunkovskaya

   5 - dusting the area before swelling. Onatsky SP (6)

   6 - plus additives reducing atmosphere (straw oil and cinders in the optimal combination). AN Ryazancev (5)

   Clay: Volga, Krasnoyarsk, Losinoostrovskaya, bunkovskaya.

   The graph shows:

   - The minimum bulk density of expanded clay using artificial charge - 50 kg / m;

   - The minimum bulk density of expanded clay at work on natural clays depends on the distension of clays and ranges of 100-140 kg / m (average 120 kg / cubic meter) for such expanded clay depends on the perfection of the firing unit, opportunities to ensure optimal conditions organization of each stage of the process, creating a self-regulatory conditions of its parameters.

   Most suitable for this purpose is a multi-zone furnace fluidized bed. The first unit of this type was commissioned in 1963 (7). Subsequent furnaces should be noted oven COP for keramzite sand capacity 50 cubic meters / year (8).

   The second item backlog expanded clay industry is the increased power consumption of the product.

   Kiln - is the energy unit, energy optimization theory which is technical thermodynamics. Thermodynamic analysis of the calcination process (9) showed that the power consumption is determined by the method of heat recovery, and the selection of the method depends on the proportion of the endothermic effect of heat flow in the total process.

   At high endothermic process (eg calcination) appropriate to use waste heat to preheat the raw materials. And with a slight endothermic effect (firing clays, ores) advantageous to dispose the sensible heat of the product.

   Rotary kiln expanded clay firing techniques borrowed from carbonate raw materials. Duplicated as energy scheme-setting heaters raw materials, ie expanded clay aggregate firing having a substantially smaller endothermic effect than by firing limestone, was in the energy sub-optimal area for yourself.

   Creators conveyor machines for roasting iron ore pellets (Uralmashplant, firm "Lurgi") completed "their" energy niche - the most of the heat pellets, which emit 45% of the lattice.


   - In 1989. gravels Industry Union burned 18.6 million tons of clay pellets (getting expanded clay) with a specific fuel consumption of 194.5 kg of equivalent per tonne;

   - At the same time mining burned 68 million tons of ore pellets (reinforcing firing pellets) with the average for the Union specific fuel consumption of 33.3 kg per tonne conditional. Fig. 2

   Fig. 2. Optimal scheme firing keramzit

   1 - rotary kiln f 2,5 h40m

   2 - crashing

   3 - Elevator

   4 - kiln COP f2, 9x9, 6 m

   5 - unit thermostrengthening

   COP f2, 65h12m

   6 - fridge

   7 - insert

   Reserve expanded clay industry - energy modernization

   firing process. To maximize energy scheme firing expanded clay aggregate needs, providing high-temperature heating air sensible heat pellets and having the ability to use heated air to burn fuel air ratio close to unity.

   The rotary kiln as a unit

   fixed temperature flame and large enough excess air ratio for the purpose of non-

   suitable. Requires unit with high intensity thermal processes - furnace of the COP.

   Optimal scheme expanded clay production in a fluidized bed (10) is shown in Fig. 2.

   Technical and economic indicators of expanded clay oven roasting COP compared with results of firing in a rotary kiln.

   * Coefficient of development modes adopted 0.8 ** - at a cost: clay - 60 rubles / cu.m., Consumption - 250 rub. / Here., Power - 460 rub. / KWh Table 1.

   These tables describe the development as set out energy-saving (with fuel consumption

   Usl.t 15 kg / cubic meter. m) technology to produce ultra-light (bulk density of 150 kg / cubic meter) expanded clay.




   Translation of expanded clay firing process rotary kiln furnace fluidized bed process will allow to translate into the category of thin technologies qualitative leap achievement indicators:

   - A decrease in the bulk density of 3 times;

   - The reduction in specific fuel consumption by 6 times;

   - Increasing productivity by 3 times;

   - Reducing the cost of 2.8 times;

   - Increasing profits with one technological line 10.




   Corr. RAS BV Gusev

   prof., Ph.D. VM Dement`ev





   1. GI Konoshenko. Investigation of the influence of some technological factors on properties keramzite sand obtained by roasting in a fluidized bed.

   Kand.dis., 1979.

   2. VL Przhetslavsky, AA Akhundov, VF Kazakov, GS Ivanov. High-temperature processing of granular materials. Building Materials, 1972, 12

   3. VL Przhetslavsky, AA Akhundov, GS Ivanov et al Preparation of porous aggregates in a fluidized bed.

   VNIISTROMa, 1973, 27 (55)

   4. RB Hovhannisyan. Deep roasting expanded clay and porous ceramic products. Construction mother

   aly, 1984, 9

   5. AN Ryazancev. Study of the temperature and gas burning regime expanded clay. Kand.dis., 1962

   6. SP Onatsky. Production of expanded clay. Stroyizdat, 1967

   7. VM Dement`ev, YP Nehlebaev. Experience starting a three-zone furnace burning limestone in a fluidized bed. Journal of Engineering Physics,

   1968, Vol XIV, 5

   8. AA Akhundov, NB Kondukov, HS Vorobyov, VM Dement`ev, BS Farber. Shaft furnace fluidized bed. AS Number 474665, BI Number 23, 6.25.75.

   9. VM Dement`ev. Theoretical basis for the creation of thermal units for the production of porous aggregates. Report of the Scientific Council VNIISTROMa, 1988

   10. VM Dement`ev. Installing the firing of bulk materials. RF patent number 2091689, 09/27/97.